The P-value is a statistical measure used to determine the probability of a given result occurring by chance. It is used to decide whether or not to accept a hypothesis, and is calculated by comparing the observed data to the expected data. A low P-value indicates that the observed data is unlikely to have occurred by chance, and therefore the hypothesis is accepted.

A P-value calculator is a tool used to calculate the probability of obtaining a certain result in a statistical test. It is used to determine whether the results of a study are statistically significant or not. The P-value is calculated by comparing the observed data to the expected data, and then determining the probability of obtaining the observed results if the null hypothesis is true.

The P-value is the probability of obtaining a result equal to or more extreme than what was actually observed, given that the null hypothesis is true. To calculate the P-value, you need to know the test statistic, the sample size, and the distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis. You then use this information to calculate the probability of obtaining a result equal to or more extreme than what was actually observed.

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